A noun is a word that names something, such as a person (Paul), place (garden), thing (vase), or idea. In a sentence, nouns can play the role of subject (Tom is busy.), direct object (Pass me the jar.), indirect object (Pass the book to Paul.), subject complement (Tom is an engineer.), object complement (Tom was appointed a principal.), appositive (My sister, Sara, lives abroad.) or adjective (mother tongue).


Proper nouns vs. common nouns

A proper noun is a specific name of a person, place, or thing, and is always capitalized (Paul, Prague).



Many English plural nouns are formed by adding -s or -es to the singular form (cars, tables, buses), although there are many irregular plural nouns (men, women, children).


Countable nouns vs. uncountable nouns

Countable nouns can be counted. Countable nouns can be used with a/an, the, some, any, a few, and many.

Uncountable nouns are impossible to count such as liquids (water) and things that act like liquids (sand, air). They are always singular, and can be used with some, any, a little, and much.


Collective nouns

Collective nouns are names for a collection or a number of people or things (herd, crowd, flock, team, staff, quoir, etc.). When individuals are in a team, a choir, or part of any other collective noun, that noun is singular and is paired with singular pronouns and singular verbs. When members of a collective noun act as individuals, that collective noun is plural and must be paired with plural pronouns and plural verbs.